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Animal Health
Thursday, October 12, 2017 6:57:59 PM
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Phileo gut health program: For an optimal weaning preparation

 

by Phileo- Lesaffre Animal Care

 

 

Gut health in 5 pillars

 

Maintaining gut health in young piglets has far-reaching implications for the entire pig growth cycle and should therefore start in the farrowing crate, by ensuring that piglets ingest enough colostrum and milk during the suckling period for optimal health and development of the gut barrier system. At this stage, it is important to consider what is meant by gut health and what are the desired results of managing gut health in the piglet. Bischoff explains the complexity of the term 'gut health' in his 2011 article, and tries to define it using the following five major criteria:

 

  1)  effective and balanced immune response,

  2)  normal and stable microflora,

  3)  absence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders,

  4)  effective digestion and absorption,

  5)  and the animal's overall well-being (Bischoff, 2011).

 

In this instance, good gut health in suckling piglets means less diarrhea and better body weight at weaning which helps the piglet withstand the weaning transition and thrive through the nursery stage.

 

Weaning is a critical stage in the piglet's life which exposes the animal to tremendous nutritional, environmental and social stress. The gut is the main organ to be affected by the stress of weaning, so optimizing piglet gut health during this phase will have a positive effect on piglet performance post weaning which is multiplied as the animal nears the grow-finish stage. A study by Tokach et al. (1992) from Kansas State University demonstrated that each additional pound (450 g) live weight gained at weaning (at 21 days of age) translates into an increase of approximately 2 pounds (910 g) at the end of the nursery stage (at 56 days of age) and 4 pounds (1.815 kg) at the end of the finishing period.

 

Several factors are involved in piglet gut health maintenance. Diet, gut mucosa and the microbiota have been proposed by Conway (1994) as the three major players in piglet gut health (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1: Schematic representation of the gut ecosystem, modified by Montagne et al. (2003) from Conway (1994).

These three elements interact with each other to maintain a dynamic equilibrium, ensuring digestive system functioning and an absence of pathology; a state defined as optimal gut health. As any disruption of this delicate balance may directly affect the animal's general health and well-being the main objective of piglet gut health management is to create gut conditions that favor balance and stability between these three factors. Weaning is by far the most important factor  that could potentially disrupt homoeostasis in the neonatal piglet gut. This serie of 3 articles reviews Phileo nutritional solutions that can overcome the negative effects of weaning on piglet gut health.

  

1)  Effective Immunity

 

Piglet gut health management starts immediately after birth by managing the sow's diet and health during the late gestation and early lactation periods. Indeed, the piglet is immunodeficient at birth, and is highly dependent upon the supply of both specific and non-specific immune factors in maternal colostrum and milk for immune protection, development and survival. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most important globulin in the first weeks of life, and IgG from colostrum is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract during the first 24 to 48 hours postpartum. Figure 2 shows that supplementing gestating and lactating sows with Actisaf® ,a concentrate of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc 47 proprietary strain, improves milk quality by increasing the concentration of IgG in the sow's colostrum, and this is passed on to the piglets (Jang et al., 2013).

Figure 2: Supplementing gestation and lactating sows with Actisaf® improves IgG levels in the colostrum and in piglet plasma at 24 hours post farrowing (A), as well as in sow and piglet plasma at 21 days post farrowing (B). (Jang et al., 2013)

This improves the piglet's immune response to the pathogens which the sow has already been exposed to, thereby improving piglet gut health and performance during the suckling period. Another study has taken this a step further and demonstrated that supplementing sow diets with Actisaf® during gestation and lactation not only increases IgG in the colostrum (Figure 3), but also maintains higher levels of IgG and IgA in the milk during the lactation period (Zanello et al., 2013). This study highlighted the specificity of Actisaf® Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc 47 proprietary strain on the enhancement of the immune quality of sow colostrum.

 
Figure 3: Supplementing sow diets with Actisaf® during late gestation and lactation increases IgG concentration in the colostrum (Zanello et al., 2013)
 

 

The results suggest that Actisaf® can stimulate the sow's immune system and increase the immunoglobulins secreted in the colostrum and milk.

  

2)  Absence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders

 

Recent field studies also suggest that the low incidence of diarrhea observed in piglets born to Actisaf® supplemented sows (Figure 4) is due to the passive transfer of immunoglobulins from sow to piglets, which helps optimize piglet gut health.

 

Figure 4: Reduction of suckling piglet diarrhea in field condition (Vietnam). Sows diet supplemented at 1kg/t in gestation and lactation.  


 

3)  Normal and stable microflora

 

The modification of the gut microbiota illustrated below (Figure 5) as a result of Actisaf® supplementation also has a role in maintaining gut health and improving piglet immunity and performance. Phylum Actinobacteria, which includes beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Collinsella, was enriched by Actisaf® supplementation while phylum Bacteroidetes, including some potentially harmful bacteria, was present at lower levels in the Actisaf®-supplemented group than the Control group.

 

Figure 5: Phylum-level taxonomic classification of bacteria in cecum samples from piglets supplemented with either sterile water or Actisaf® by oral gavage, from one day old until weaning. Hindgut microbial composition in the different Treatment groups was compared at the phylum level of classification (Kiros et al., manuscript in preparation).  

4)   Effective absorption & animal performances

   

Many studies have demonstrated the importance of feeding piglets a creep feed from around 12 days of age (Carstensen et al., 2005; Pluske et al., 2007) and supplementing piglets with Actisaf® in this feed can further boost the benefits of creep feeding by stimulating the immune response and modifying the gut microbiota. A study has shown that feeding Actisaf® to suckling piglets from birth until weaning improved piglet performance (Figure 6).

 

Figure 6: Comparison of weight gain in Actisaf® – supplemented and control piglets. Piglets were administreted either sterile saline (Control) or approximately 5x109 CFU Actisaf® by oral gavage from 1 day old until weaning. Body weight was recorded at regular intervals and presented either as average piglet weight in kilograms (A) or average daily gain in grams (B). (Kiros et al., manuscript in preparation).

Conclusion

  

With the current growing trend to completely ban, or at least reduce, the use of antibiotics in pig farming, these different studies suggest that reinforcing maternal immunity with specific strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc 47 - Actisaf® is a viable option to protect neonate piglets against infections and intestinal disorders by stimulating immune responses, at both systemic and mucosal sites. Primary source of piglets contamination being the sow's environment, new nutritional approaches should consider not only the animal needs, but also feeding their microbiota in order to improve the ecosystem of new born piglets. Managing gut health factors in suckling period  have to be considered as an insurance to secure critical event of weaning.
 
 
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Article made possible through the contribution of Phileo- Lesaffre Animal Care
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