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Livestock Production

  

OrgafeedTM: A Breakthrough Industrial-Conversion of Palm Kernel Expeller Meal for Use in Chicken Feed

 
Yahya Muhamad

Collaborated by Gerard Huyghebaert and Luc Goethals

(Original Article: October 2002; Revised: 20 August, 2003)

 

 

Palm kernel expeller (PKE) is a major byproduct of the palm kernel oil milling where one tonne of kernel produces 500 kg of meal and 450 kg of crude palm kernel oil.  Malaysia is the world's largest producer of PKE and exported 1.82 mmt or about 50% of the international output. While PKE has been used for many years as a feed ingredient in ruminant rations, especially for dairy cattle use in the EU countries, the meal has not been successfully utilized for chicken feeding.  Previous research had shown that optimal inclusion rates of palm kernel meal in broiler and layer diets were at 10 and 20%, respectively (Yeong, 1985; Yahya et al., 2000). The limitations for the use of PKE in the diets of monogastric were attributed to its high fiber (non-starch polysaccharide, NSP) and broken shell particles. The meal nevertheless contains useful nutrients such as 8-10% residual kernel oil; 16-17% crude protein with good amino acid profile. Additional nutrients also include carotene, vitamin E, calcium, phosphorus and trace minerals.

 

In the past, attempts were made to improve digestibility of the Non-Starch Polysaccharide in Palm Kernel Expeller through the use of exogenous enzymes (Yahya, 2000) and through in vitro hydrolysis with enzyme and alkali (Daud and Jarvis, 1991). However, the application of enzymes on industrial scale had not been forthcoming. The reasons for this are due to the difficulties in obtaining specific enzymes for effective conversion of PKE, and because of the high price of commercial enzymes. The lack of suitable process design for the up scaling of the necessary enzymatic conversion of PKE had hindered progress in this area.

 

Over the last three years, a Malaysian incorporated company known as Inproser Group of Companies had successfully introduced a breakthrough enzyme product under the trade name ORGAZYMETM. This product was developed through intensive R&D cooperation with Genencor International B.V. of Europe. A small-scale enzymatic process conversion of PKE was first started in the Netherland in 2001.  The process involved the use of thermally stable mannanase and several hemicellulases to hydrolyze PKE (with addition of water) under high-temperature stability and pH-controlled incubator known as Enzymaster®. With the upscaling, it is now possible to optimally convert one tonne of PKE with one kilogram Orgazyme in a 24-hour cycle. Batches of a few hundred kilograms of the converted PKE were made available to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Services, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, for nutrient evaluation and for a couple of laboratory-scale broiler feeding trials. In this article, the results of the chemical analysis and an experiment on growth and meat quality improvement of the chicken fed with Orgafeed-based diets in comparison with an established commercial feed are discussed.

 

 

Nutrient Contents of Orgafeed

 

Chemical analyses revealed that while small changes occurred in the results of proximate analysis, substantial reduction of detergent fibers had taken place after conversion of PKE to Orgafeed (the enzymatic-treated PKE). There were 55% decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 31% decrease in acid detergent fiber (ADF).  Since NDF gives a total picture of the fiber content of a feed and ADF indicates the more difficult to hydrolyze fiber component, the difference between the total NDF in the PKE and ADF of the Orgafeed indicates the amount of the fiber that had been converted into simple or free sugars. In this sample 42% of the NDF (equivalent to 30% of raw PKE material) on dry weight basis was presumed converted into free sugars.  Measurement of total sugar in Orgafeed using a Refractometer gave a reading of about 30%.  The results of the analyses of fibers and other nutrients for PKE and Orgafeed are shown in Table 1.

 

Measurement of individual sugars by chromatography has been performed.  However mannose, which is not found as free sugar in nature, has been detected in high proportion in Orgafeed since galacto-mannan polymers are characteristic storage polysaccharides in the kernel tissues of many palm species. Other free sugars could also be released in the form of glucose, xylose, fructose and galactose (Daud and Jarvis, 1991).   Mannose is of special interest in Orgafeed because this sugar does not occur free in nature and many studies show phosphorylated or glycosylated mannose is an immunologically active carbohydrate at the cellular and humeral level.

 

Changes in the concentration of most nutrients occurred as a result of dilution and fiber reduction effects.  Moisture was increased in Orgafeed to a stable 12% while crude protein improved from 17 to 18%. Other increments were noted for cobalt, copper, vitamin A and most essential amino acids. Other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, selenium and mercury, and aflatoxins were not detected in the PKE and Orgafeed samples. Arsenic was present in a very low concentration of 1 ppm.  Essential amino acids are about 145% more in Orgafeed than found in maize and approximately they make up about 45.4% of the ideal protein (ARC, 1981). Dispensable amino acids (not shown in Table 1) were estimated at 52% as compared to the standard proportion of 59.6% of the ideal protein. The Metabolisable energy (nitrogen corrected) as determined for Orgafeed (23% conversion) from a broiler balance study performed at Agriculture Research Centre, Gent, Belgium (G. Huyghebaert, personal communication), gave a value of 9.0 MJ/kg on dry weight basis as compared to maize grain at 14.0 MJ/kg (NRC, 1984). The estimated fatty acids in Orgafeed based on Malaysian Standard for crude palm kernel oil (MS 80:1987) are: C12:0=5.0%; C14:0=1.7%; C16:0=0.93%; C18:1=1.7%; C18:2=0.35%. Orgafeed also had good content of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, cobalt, zinc, copper, iron and molybdenum.  Thus, Orgafeed provides an excellent substitute feedstuff with twice the crude protein, 3.7 times the fat and about 87% ME contents of the maize grain.

 

           Table 1.  Selected nutrient composition of PKE and Orgafeed

Nutrient (on dry matter basis)

PKE

(non-treated PKE)

Orgafeed

(enzyme-treated PKE)

%

change

Moisture (%)

2.3

12.3

+453

Crude protein (%)

16.9

17.9

+5.9

Crude fat as ether extract (%)

12.6

10.4

-10.4

Crude fibre (%)

11.3

9.4

-17.7

Neutral detergent fibre (%)

70.7

31.9

-54.9

Acid detergent fibre (%)

41.8

28.8

-31.1

Ash (%)

5.4

5.4

0

Calcium (%)

0.34

0.23

-32.3

Phosphorus (%)

0.69

0.67

-2.9

Cobalt (ppm)

0.18

0.90

+400

Iron (ppm)

800

800

0

Copper (ppm)

21.36

28.04

+31.7

Zinc (ppm)

not determined

61.13

--

Molybdenum (ppm)

8.01

7.29

-9.0

Vitamin A (IU/kg)

39,300

189,000

+381

Vitamin E (IU/kg)

0.38

0.32

-15.8

Lysine (%)

0.32

0.35

+9.4

Methionine (%)

0.27

0.20

-25.9

Cystine (%)

0.10

0.11

+10.0

Tryptophan (%)

0.12

0.14

+16.7

Histidine (%)

0.37

0.16

-21.0

Threonine (%)

0.73

1.53

+110

Tyrosine (%)

0.39

0.32

-7.0

Valine (%)

0.78

0.73

-6.4

Leucine (%)

0.86

0.90

+4.6

Isoleucine (%)

1.45

1.25

-13.8

Phenylalanine (%)

0.66

0.74

+12.1

Arginine (%)

1.85

2.42

+131.0

MEn-broilers

6.6

12.6ii

+47.6

Detailed sugar content (%)#

 

 

 

1. Total sugar (of total dry matter)

ND*

20

+100.0

2. Reducing sugar

 

 

 

a. Mannose (% DM Orgafeed)

Not detected

15

+100.0

b. Glucose (% DM Orgafeed)

0.14

3.07

+95.4

c. Fructose (% DM Orgafeed)

0.17

0.9

+81.1

d. Arabinose (% DM Orgafeed)

Not detected

0.70

+100.0

e. Xylose (% DM Orgafeed)

Not detected

0.15

+100.0

f. Rhamnose (% DM Orgafeed)

Not detected

0.02

+100.0

3. Rate of conversion

ND*

27

+100.0

 

               ii   Extrapolated nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy at 27% conversion.

           #   Based on HPLC determination by Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

           *   Not determined; free sugars assumed nil.

 

Note: A detail sugar composition has to be given in order to see which extent the reduction in NDF and ADF is compensated by both "disaccharides and monosaccharides" (Þ- and ß-bonds with respect to the endogenous enzyme specificity).  Additional reference material analysis had been obtained from Genencor Laboratory trials and confirmation from Prof. Dr. Kemerling of Carbohydrate Laboratory of the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.

 

 

Feeding Trial on Orgafeed-based Diets

 

A 290-bird growth trial to compare Orgafeed diets with an established commercial broiler feed in the market was conducted based on a randomized block design. The Cobb day-old broiler chicks were equally and randomly allotted to 24 cages where two units of three-cage battery were placed in a separate room, which were identically constructed and provided with 24-hour lighting, cooling and exhaust fans. Each wire netting cage measuring 15" x 41.5" x 30" space housed 12 birds and provided with standard plastic water and feed containers, and waste collection tray.  Three treatments consisting of two Orgafeed-based diets and a commercial feed, as the reference diet, were randomly assigned to the three cages in each battery unit so that every treatment had equal chance to be in the top, middle or bottom level of the battery. The commercial feed was assumed to compose of maize and soya bean meal as main ingredients as most of the commercial feed in the market are maize-soya based feed. All birds were vaccinated against IB, ND and Gumboro disease (IBD) as commonly practiced in the industry.

 

The birds were fed on the starter diets for four weeks and finisher diets for two weeks. The Orgafeed-based diets were formulated to meet the daily nutrient requirements for the starter and finisher birds based on the NRC (1994) standards for meat-type chicken.  The composition for the two Orgafeed diets were about similar except that one of them contained 0.09% deodorised calcium butyrate (Green-CAB-75-P®) as selective gut's antibacterial agent. No feed antibiotic or cossidiostat were included in these diets. The Orgafeed was used at the levels of 35% in the starter and 40% in the finisher diets.  Daily feed intakes and weekly live weights were recorded on cage basis.  The composition and estimated nutrients of the Orgafeed based diets are shown in Table 2.   The diets should meet the minimum RDA based on the NRC standard on major nutrients; vitamins and trace minerals were presumed met by the premix.  Copper contents of the diets were monitored due to relatively higher copper level in the Orgafeed. 

 

On day 39 of the trial, all birds were weighed and delivered to the market for slaughter and 10 female dressed birds were randomly selected from each treatment group for meat quality study.  The study used a 200-consumer panelist sensory evaluation on cooked meat quality attributes such as aroma, hardness, juiciness, meat flavour, and overall acceptability. Textural properties of the chilled carcasses were also measured using the Stephen Farnells Quality Texture Analyser. The study was based on the standard hedonic sensory test procedures of a 7-point scale (Babji, 2003). Statistical analysis of the trial and test data was performed by analysis of variance and mean comparisons by Duncan's least significant difference (SASWIN 6.12).

 

           Table 2.  Composition of Orgafeed-based Diets

Composition

% as fed basis

Starter A

Starter B

Finisher A

Finisher B

Orgafeed

35.43

35.41

40.49

40.50

Ground yellow corn

22.64

23.59

21.12

21.13

Soya bean meal

23.15

23.14

20.13

20.10

Wheat bran

2.09

1.58

5.18

5.18

Maize gluten feed

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

Crude palm oil

6.33

5.91

6.36

6.30

Fish meal

5.73

5.74

2.87

2.85

Ground limestone

1.63

1.63

1.36

1.36

Dicalcium phosphate

0.27

0.27

0.18

0.18

Salt

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Lysine

0.41

0.41

0.41

0.41

Methionine

0.27

0.36

0.27

0.27

Mineral-vitamin premix

0.58

0.58

0.34

0.34

CAB-75-P

0

0.09

0

0.09

Antimold

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.01

                     Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

 

Nutrient concentration per kg (DM basis)

Crude protein, %

22.9

22.76

20.99

20.76

Metabolisable energy, MJ/kg

13.22

13.14

13.09

13.09

Lysine, g

13.03

12.97

11.23

11.00

Methionine, g

5.88

6.88

5.27

5.19

Cysteine, g

3.46

3.10

2.86

2.84

Choline, ppm

1448.73

1428.87

1171.19

1296.03

Calcium, g

14.46

14.45

10.65

10.62

Total Phosphorus, g

7.06

7.05

5.98

5.82

Copper, ppm

22.37

22.22

23.41

23.40

  

Note: Composition of the commercial starter and grower diets were not available.

  

 

Results of Orgafeed Poultry Feeding Trial and Meat Quality Evaluation

 

The statistical data on the growth and meat quality studies are summarized in Table 3.  The results show that no significant differences were noted for the initial weights of the day-old chicks as well as live weights at 21 days on feed.  Total feed intakes were also not significantly different between treatments.  Higher (P<0.05) final weight at 39 days and total weight gains for treatments C and B over that of treatment A at 2.23, 2.18 vs 2.04 kg and 2.2, 2.1 vs 1.99 kg, respectively. Feed efficiencies (FCR) were significantly better for treatment C than the other treatments.  This difference in FCR might be an indication that the nutritional value of Orgafeed might be slightly overestimated due to insufficient conversion from the trial material (22 vs 30%).  The dietary supplementation with CAB-75-P (treatment B) resulted in a just not significantly better FCR in comparison with treatment A.

 

A 600-panelist study on the sensory attributes of the cooked meat was performed on thigh meat samples of the female chicken. The meat from the chicken fed with Orgafeed diets (Treatment A) were preferred over those from the chicken fed with the commercial diets (Treatment C) and those fed with Orgafeed diets with additive CAB-75-P (Treatment B).  The overall acceptance of the cooked meat was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other treatments and that, in general, the texture qualities (hardness and chewiness) tended to favour the Orgafeed (Treatments A and B) meat.

  

             Table 3.  Growth Performance and Meat Quality Attributes of Chicken Fed with

                            Orgafeed-based Diets and A Commercial Diet

 

Dietary Treatments

Significant

level at P<0.05

(LSD)

Performance parameters

A

(Orgafeed)

B

(Orgafeed + CAB-75-P)

C

(Commercial

diet)

Initial wt, g

42.11

42.7

42.1

Ns

(0.97)

Wt day 21, g

845.5

819.6

910.4

Ns

(110.0)

Final wt day 39, g

2036.3a

2182.5b

2270.0b

*

(126.6)

Total gain, g

1993.9a

2139.9b

2227.7b

*

(126.9)

Total feed intake, g

3886

3879

3834

Ns

(214)

FCR, g feed/kg gain

1.96a

1.85a

1.73b

*

(0.12)

 

Sensory attributes (score 1-7)1 and meat texture parameters2

Meat A

(Orgafeed)

Meat B

(Orgafeed + CAB-75-P)

Meat C

(Commercial

diet)

Significant

level at P<0.05

Aroma

4.04

3.8

4.02

Ns

Hardness

4.78

4.42

4.44

Ns

Juiciness

4.51

4.18

4.27

Ns

Meat flavour

4.73b

4.09b

4.16b

*

Overall acceptance

4.69a

4.06b

4.39a

*

Texture (hardness, kgf)

 

 

 

 

     day 0 chilled at 4oC

1434.0a

1351.7a

1929b

*

     day 9 chilled at 4oC

1508.3a

977.7b

1876.3a

*

Texture (chewiness, kgf)

 

 

 

 

     day 0 chilled at 4oC

2064.4

2248.5

2757.4

Ns

     day 9 chilled at 4oC

2198.3ab

984.8a

3448.9b

*

             1Based on 7-point scale of hedonic sensory test method; higher value indicates better sensory acceptance.

             2The lower value indicates higher preference.

          Ns = not significantly different.

          * Values having different superscripts within same row are significantly different.

 

Conclusion

 

The present preliminary studies on OrgafeedTM in terms of its nutritive and feeding qualities and as a meat quality enhancer demonstrated its vast potential as an alternative feed ingredient for use with the other monogastric livestock and omnivorous fish. The production of Orgafeed utilizes a "clean" process manufacturing system and will be expected to produce a uniform quality feed product that is free from environmental residues, microbes and biological toxins. Since PKE is used as the sole starting raw material for its conversion into Orgafeed, the abundant and sustainable supply of PKE in the South East Asian region would pave way for a viable and large-scale industrial application of the breakthrough conversion technology.

 

Several pre-commercial trials utilising 20-30% Orgafeed-based formulations, without inclusion of any antibiotics or synthetic growth promotants, involving 80,000 layers and 50,000 broilers are being conducted.  These trials show excellent layer and broiler growth performance with relatively low motality rates (below 4%) comparable to the standard corn-soya based diets.  Furthermore, the observed health effect of the mannose sugar and other soluble oligosaccharides present in Orgafeed, as demonstrated through the exclusion of feed antibiotics or growth promotants, add another incalculable value to the Orgafeed as a newly introduced ingredient. Being a novel feed ingredient, more definitive studies on true metabolizsable energy and on amino acid bioavailability for various monogastrics will be highly desired.

 

 

References

 

Daud, M.J. and M.C. Davis. 1991. Saccrification of palm kernel cake by alkali and enzyme treatment.  Proc. 14th MSAP Ann. Conf., Genting Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia, 8-9 May, 1991, pp. 83-86.

 

Yahya, M., K. Azahar, F.Y. Chin, A.B. Idris and N. Vincent. 2000. Use of commercial enzyme to improve utilization of palm kernel expeller meal in poultry diets.  Proc. 22nd MSAP Ann. Conf., Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, 29 May - 1 June 2000, pp. 155-156.

 

Babji, A.S., A.B. Rahim and Y. Muhamad. 2002. Sensory consumer test on meat quality of poultry fed with OrgafeedTM BiopalmaTM PKE formulated feeds. Proc. 25th MSAP Ann. Conf., Melaka, Malaysia, 1-3 August 2003, pp. 77-78.

 

Yeong, S.W. 1985. 1. Palm oil by-products as feeds for poultry.  In Proceedings of the National Symposium on Oilpalm By-Products for Agro-based Industries, 5-6 November 1985. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia and Ministry of Primary Industries, Malaysia, 175-186.

 

_____________________________________________________________________

 

About the Author and Co-Authors

 

Dr. Yahya Muhamad (yahya@inproser.com.my) had served as a Senior Research Officer for 21 years with the Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture Malaysia.  He is presently holding the post of Science Advisor for the Inproser Group of Companies.

 

Prof. G. Huyghebaert is a Senior Poultry Researcher at CLO-DVV State Research Institute for Small Animal Husbandry in Merelbeke, Belgium.

 

Ir. Luc Goethals is a well-known Nutrition Scientist from Sanluc International NV of Belgium.

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