Dietary Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores improve broiler chicken and turkey live performance
Bacillus spores are emerging as a leading class of dietary direct-fed microbial (probiotic) performance enhancers for broiler chickens and turkeys, when antibiotics are removed, because they typically are effective, have high survivability through steam pelleting, and are economical.
Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores (B.s. C-3102; CALSPORIN, Calpis Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) were selected from screening over 300 strains of beneficial bacteria, including several types of Bacillus spores. The B.s. C-3102 spores were introduced commercially as an animal feed additive product in Japan in 1986.
Today, the product is marketed in Asia, Brazil, the European Union, and the United States, with the area of distribution continuing to expand globally as new regulatory approvals are obtained. This article will summarise some information about the mode of action, trial results, and expected benefits when using B.s. C-3102 spores in broiler chicken and turkey diets.
Although some strains of Bacillus are capable of producing antibiotics or X-factors (e.g. bacitracin is obtained commercially from Bacillus licheniformis), and/or enzymes (e.g. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is used commercially for starch hydrolysis), the main mode of action of B.s. C-3102 appears to be rapid oxygen consumption making the digesta more anaerobic, which favours lactic acid producing bacteria.
Lactobacillus reuteri coating the intestinal tract, especially the crop and ceca, and other Lactobacilli are facultative anaerobes which proliferate under anaerobic conditions as shown by fresh fecal microbial assays.
Lactobacilli produce lactic acid which inhibits pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens, enterotoxic E. coli, and Salmonella. These declines in pathogen counts are also confirmed by fresh fecal microbial assays. Reduction in Clostridium perfringens numbers to safe levels within the intestinal tract when antibiotics are removed from poultry diets is required for prevention of necrotic enteritis and associated mortality. Pathogen reduction on poultry meat has become extremely important because modern customers require a high level of food safety.
Fritts et al. (2000) at the University of Arkansas conducted two broiler chicken trials of identical design on litter to 42 days of age using diets with or without B.s. C-3102. Broilers were grown with the control and treated birds physically separated, with different groups of caretakers to prevent cross-contamination.
Combined results indicated that inclusion of the direct-fed microbial significantly increased 42-day body weight and lowered 21 to 42 day feed conversion ratio. Significant reductions in aerobic plate count, coliforms (non-E. coli), and Campylobacter on processed carcasses (by whole carcass rinse) were observed. All 94 pre-chill carcasses of the birds fed the negative control diet were positive for Salmonella whereas only 41 of 96 carcasses of birds fed diets containing B.s. were positive. B.s. C-3102 improved live performance and reduced pathogen loads on broiler chickens experimentally.
Blair et al. (2004) reported that B.s. C-3102 spores or zinc bacitracin (55 ppm) in Hybrid large white male turkey diets from the time of placement significantly increased 18-week body weight gain. There were 8 replicate pens of 24 poults each per treatment. Litter ammonia volatilisation in vitro was 7.8 ppm in Bs C-3102 pens versus 25.2 ppm in control pens at 9 weeks. Processing yield was determined at the end of the trial.
It was concluded that dietary B.s. C-3102 was equivalent to zinc bacitracin (55 ppm) for supporting body weight gain from 0-18 weeks of age, and was superior to negative control for reducing ammonia emission from turkey litter at 9 weeks of age.
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Article made possible through the contribution of Hooge Consulting Service, Inc.