In Indonesia, carp is raised on small-scale farms.
The fish are handled by different breeders at different sizes, with farmers at one stage selling to farmers on the next higher stage. fish are often raised to a weight of 200 grammes before they are eaten.
Raising such fish only require ponds or flooded rice fields which are often shallow. If they are grown to 500 grammes, they are usually kept in running water cages in ponds where they grow quickly in high density, feeding on kitchen refuse and faeces. The main feed used in fine bran, rice polishings and broken rice grains. By breaking down the breeding and production into stages, they increase efficiency while at the same time keeping down their risks.
Carp is often the most expensive fish in the country.
China, the country with the world's largest production of freshwater fish, deploys complex poly culture systems combining different species in ponds. Also, fish are sorted into five growing stages. This means work has to done in sorting and transferring fish speices. The feed used is edible plants, bran cakes, fine feeds and others. Chinese carps are of high importance.
In Japan, carp is reared in stagnant irrigation ponds with mechanical aeration and automatic feed systems. Pellets containing 50 percent fishmeal are fed during the short growing season supplemented by silkworm pupae or frozen fish.
The article also provides daily ration per fish according to their weights and stocking density. Expected growth rate and feed composition are also given.
The article also looks at how natural foods such as phytoplankton grown in ponds may help in supplementing feed.
A table is also supplied detailing the yields from different combinations of feed, culturing systems and environmental factors.
Different species are also assessed to see which breed would pose the least environmental risk should they escape.
The article also gives reasons as to why the larger ponds would require lesser labour proportionately.
The article also advises on stocking density and detailed they myriad factors involved such as chemical fertilisers, feeds and harvesting periods. Tips on managing fingerlings, re-stocking and harvesting methods are also given.
The last part discusses the role of manure and oxygen in fishfarms with regards to Chinese carp.
For the full article, please click here