Efficacy of herbal spray in treating Subclinical mastitis in cattle
In today's world safe and wholesome milk production is a challenge for the farmers with increasing incidences of different types of diseases and emergence of new and resistant pathogens due to indiscriminate and unjustified uses of antibiotics/ antimicrobials. When we are talking about the prevalent diseases Mastitis one of the major disease which cause trouble not only to animals and farmers but significant loss to the economy of the farm, society and ultimate to the country.
Bovine mastitis defined as 'parenchymal inflammation of the mammary gland' is characterized by a range of physical and chemical changes of the milk and pathological changes in the udder glandular tissues. According to the clinical symptoms mastitis may be classified as clinical mastitis or sub- clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis usually leads the clinical form as it is of longer period, difficult to diagnose, adversely affects milk production and quality and comprises a reservoir of pathogens that lead to disease of other animals within the herd. Mastitis is the most cost intensive production disease in dairy industry, causing a considerable financial burden. According to a recent report an annual economic losses sustained by dairy industry in India on account of udder infections have been projected about Rs. 6053.21 crores. Out of this, loss of Rs. 4365.32 crores (70%-80% loss) was credited to sub clinical version of udder infections. Subclinical mastitis is important due to the fact that it is 15 to 40 times more prevalent than the clinical form.
Control of bovine mastitis is challenge because of multiple etiological agents. Mostly antibiotics are used for the treatment and control of mastitis, but intra-mammary infusion of antibiotics for mastitis therapy was cited as a major reason for milk contamination and frequent use of antibiotic therapy leads to antibiotic resistance. Increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is further suspected to complicate the effectiveness of the mastitis treatment. WHO has also emphasized on the use of medicinal plant as an alternative to antibiotic. Several herbal extracts have shown in vitro antibacterial activity versus major mastitis pathogens. Some of these are Cedrus deodara, Curcuma longa and Eucalyptus globules which is having anti-inflammatory effect also. Detecting the mastitis in early stage and keeping the animal udder in the outmost healthy condition is the only way to prevent the physical and economic losses due to mastitis. There should be a solution which is giving all round protection to udder not only from the pathogens but also relief the pathogenic effects to the udder. All the above mention recommendation was fulfilled by a Mastilap which is a herbal spray. We keep continuing our research studies through clinical and field trial to ascertain the efficacy of products at different situations. On this context we are having a clinical trial report in which the efficacy of the herbal spray for the treatment of mastitis was compared with another herbal product which is very much known in the market.
Plan of Trial:
A total of 30 cows were screened as per the guidelines of International Dairy Federation (IDF) having 10 healthy and 20 cows were exhibiting the signs of subclinical mastitis, divided in to 3 groups. Control; having 10 healthy cows, Second group having 10 cows suffering from SCM and treated with 'Brand A' (gel), applied gently by massaging the udder after each milking, BID for 5 days. Third group is also having 10 cows suffering from SCM and treated with Mastilap spray BID for 5 days. Therapeutic efficacy was determined on the basis of Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT) readings, improvement in the somatic cell count and milk yield.
Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT)
Table 1: MCMT Test.
MCMT at day 0, 5th, 14th and 21st. In the 'Brand A' treated group after the treatment on 5th day, 14th day and also on 21st day, 60% animals were found to be positive. In the Matilap treated group after the treatment on 5th day 60% animals were positive and only 20% remained positive at 14th day whereas on day 21st it was only 10% remained positive. Data shows the high antimicrobial potential and anti-inflammatory properties of Mastilap against the subclinical mastitis.
Table 2: Average Somatic cell count (SCC X105).
In the control group the average Somatic cell count (x105) ranges between1.15 to 1.67. Average SCC (x105) of 'Brand A' treated group there is 16.94 % decrease in the SCC from day 0 to 21st whereas in Mastilap treated group there is 78.52% decrease in the SCC from day 0 to 21st. Decrease in the average SCC is due to the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of the herbal ingredients of Cedrus deodara, Curcuma longa and Eucalyptus globules plants which are the component ingredients of the herbal spray Mastilap.
Table 3: Milk yield during the study period between the treatments.
There was a significant increase in the average milk production of Mastilap treated group, from 9.040 L /day on day 0 to10.63 L /day on day 21st. Whereas there was no significant increase in the average milk production of 'Brand A' treated group and control group. Significant increase in the average milk production is may be due to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial property of the ingredients of herbal spray Mastilap which leads to quick recovery of the mammary glands from the infection and inflammation consequent upon which mammary gland becomes healthy and more milk produced by the gland.
Result shows that the efficacy of the herbal spray 'Mastilap' was better than that of 'Brand A' treated group. Herbal spray Mastilap has proven excellent in the form of improved SCC and increased milk yield. Therefore application of the herbal spray Mastilap may be recommended to cure subclinical mastitis.
Mastilap proves its efficacy in preventing mastitis and treating subclinical mastitis.
This article is based on report 'Efficacy evaluation of topical herbal spray in subclinical spray in subclinical Mastitis'. Trial study was done at TANUVAS, Chennai, India published in wjpmr, 2017
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Article made possible through the contribution of Dr. Amit Kumar Pandey Ph.D. (VPT), Dr. Praful Kumar, and Ayurvet