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Animal Health

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Functional Additives
Monday, June 20, 2016 4:36:05 PM
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Nutritional factors and piglet intestinal development


Sheila Jacobi, Ph.D., The Ohio State University




• Nutrient supply and gut health

• What is gut health?

• Postnatal digestive development

• Impact of weaning

• Gut health

• Macronutrient digestibility

• Nutritional interventions


The Organ That Controls Nutrient Supply & Why Gut Health is Important


The Gut – A Major Metabolic Organ

Gut is 5-7% of body mass but accounts for:

• 20-35% of whole body energy expenditure

• 20-60% utilization of dietary amino acids

• 100% utilization of glutamate

• Gut health is a requirement to ensure feed digestibility, achieve the optimal intake and realize optimal growth during all phase of pork production

• Optimal digestion and absorption of feed

• Absence of gastrointestinal tract illness

• 'Homeostatic' GI microbiome

• Ideal immune status (The gut is largest immune organ)

• A state of animal well-being


Weaning Negatively Impacts GI Health

• Weaning presents simultaneous stressors on young pigs

• Nutritional

• Environmental

• Psychological

• Post-weaning "growth check" is correlated with changes in gut health.

• The goal at weaning is to reduce the negative impact weaning has on production, disease, morbidity and mortality.


Minimal Feed Intake After Weaning Compromises Gut Barrier Function
• Period of temporary starvation after weaning

   • Reduce intestinal surface area

   • Increases intestinal inflammation



Postnatal Digestive Development

• Rapid transition in digestive function

   • Qualitative and quantitative alterations in digestive enzyme secretion occur

   • Dietary intake of substrate influences enzyme expression

   • Alteration in intestinal architecture


Factors affecting nutrient "availability"

• Digestibility

• Absorption of end product of digestion

• Metabolism of absorbed products

• Digestibility – probably the most important factor in the efficiency of feed utilization

   • Inherent feature of feedstuffs to a large extent

• Absorption and utilization – usually not a major problem but is influenced by the pig (e.g. age, sex, physiological state/health of the gut)


Ontogeny of Lipases



Ontogeny of Pancreatic Enzymes in the Piglet



Lipid Digestion, Absorption and Function

• MCT and MCFA

   • High in milk and passively diffuse into the enteroctyes

   • Dierick et al. (2002, 2004) MCFA increase nutrient absorption, immune function, and reduce microbial counts in the intestine


   • Changes FA composition of tissues and modulates barrier function in neonatal pigs (Boudry et al., 2009; Hess et al., 2008; Jacobi et al., 2012)

   • Gabler et al. (2008) found n-3 LCFA supplemented to the sow during gestation and/or lactation increase glucose transport in the weanling pig intestine


Lipid Source Modulates Weight Gain

• Short- and medium-chain fatty acids (≤ 14 C) 80-95% apparent digestibility

• Source, inclusion level, and intermolecular distribution of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids within lipids may affect lipid digestibility

2 x 2 factorial

   5% Corn oil or 5% Fish Oil

   ± Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

Barrows were weaned at 21 d of age and randomly allotted 4 groups
   Individually housed

   Diets were fed for 21 d

On day 21 animals received an i.p. injection of LPS at 100 mg/kg BW or vehicle

Samples were collected 4h after injections


Digestibility of Lipids

• Age in the nursery

• Unsaturated:saturated ratio

   • In general, digestibility of animal fat sources increases with age compared to vegetable oils

• Free fatty acids negatively impact digestibility

   • Variable results

• Nutrient interactions also impact digestibility

   • Crude fiber content can decrease lipid digestibility

   • Lipid content can affect protein digestibility

• Nutrient digestibility is altered given health of the intestinal tract


• 21d weaned pigs

• The starches were considered:

   • rapidly digestible (S1)

   • moderately rapidly digestible (S2)

   • moderately slowly digestible (S3)

   • slowly digestible (S4)

   • based on the rate of maximal in vitro starch digestion

• Bifidobacterium spp. were higher in the slowly digestible starch diet

• Starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increased post-ileal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and electively promoted Bifidobacterium spp.



• Non-digestible carbohydrates

   • Direct and indirect effects on gut health and function

   • Direct

      GIT viscosity

      Water retention capacity

      Rate of digesta passage

   • Indirect

      Fermentation by gut microbiota

      Change microbial population

      SCFA production



Yeast cell wall derivatives

• Oligosaccharide derive from yeast cell wall

• Increases pig ADG & ADFI of weanling pigs (Miguel et al., 2004)

• Mechanism of action: modification microbiota, anti-adhesive function and inhibition of immune system activation How does it help with production cost?

• Animals remain on feed so they continue to grow

• Microbes extract energy from the prebiotic function that can be used in energy maintenance of GI tract in SCFA

• Reduces activation of mucosal immune system
*Prebiotics are selectively fermented nondigestible ingredients that allow specific changes in both the luminal microbial population and their activity to promote intestinal health by being fermented to SCFA


Protein/Amino Acid Digestibility

• Protein = essential nutrients for growth and reproduction

   • Amino acids – protein components that are key for growth and productivity

      • Essential, non-essential and conditionally essential

• Affected by a number of factors

      • Feed type, processing, fiber content, quality of protein, and anti-nutritionals

      • Age of the pig

      • Management/feeding level


Soy Products & Anti-nutritionals

• Soybean meal processing

   • Toasted or extracted – deactivates trypsin inhibitors and lectins

   • Enzyme-treated SBM – reduces concentration of oligosaccharides and allergenic proteins

   • Fermented SBM -  reduces concentration of oligosaccharides and allergenic proteins

   • Soy protein concentrate – removes soluble CHOs, but majority of fiber in SBM is insoluble and remains

   • Soy protein isolate – solubilizing protein and then precipitating removing CHOs and fat


Protein Source Enhances Growth & AA Digestibility in Milk Fed Pigs
• total protease and trypsin at the duodenum and jejunum of piglets fed with FSBM increased (P<0.05)
• The trypsin activity in the pancreas of piglets decreased (P<0.05) when they were fed with FSBM
Bioactive Amino Acids & Gut Health

• Early-weaning

   • ↑ genes related to oxidative stress and immune activation

   • ↓ genes related to macronutrient metabolism and cell proliferation in the gut

• Glutamine supplementation at early weaning

   • ↑ intestinal gene expression related to cell growth and removal of oxidants

   • ↓ genes that promote oxidative stress and immune activation in the gut

• Glutamine enhanced intestinal oxidative-defense, increased intestinal growth, and body weight gain in weanling pigs


Dietary Interventions to Improve Efficiency

• Processed SBM

• Spray dried plasma protein

• Probiotics

• Prebiotics

• Enzymes

• Nucleotide rich products

• Acidifiers

• Egg yolk antibodies

• Plant extracts/essential oils



For more of the article, please click here.


Article made possible through the contribution of Sheila Jacobi and The Ohio State University

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