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Nutritional Additives
Thursday, May 25, 2017 3:04:53 PM
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The nutrition effect and formulations application of trace elements


Xingjia Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd.


1.  The nutrition effect of trace elements

Trace elements consist of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, I, Se, Co, Cr etc, accounting for less than 0.01% of the total body weight only. As aminoacids and vitamins, the trace elements are the essential nutrition additives in feeds, especially Fe, Zn and Mn which are called “biological Metal”. See Table 1-1, 1-2

Table 1-1Nutrition effect of different trace elements on swine

  Element Production stage           Physiological function 
  Fe Piglet As a major component of hemoglobin, participating in hematopoiesis, nutrient absorption, delivery, metabolism and accordingly improvement in the health and growth.
  Sow Involving in the fetal development and activities. 
  Affecting the physique and delivery ability
  Zn Piglet Promoting development of the immune system and strengthening the potentiality of the immune system
  Beneficial for the intestinal health and accordingly digestion, and protecting piglet from diarrhea.
  Involving in the regulation of gene expression in the form of enzymes and beneficial for the nutrient digestion and absorption via regulating intestinal bacterial activity.
  Sow Promoting the secretion of the reproduction hormones and improving the reproductive performance.
  Facilitating ovulation, embryo implantation and differentiation.
  Promoting fetal growth and development.
  Boar Facilitating the secretion of androgenic hormones like testosterone;
  Involving in the formation of sperm, improving the seminal fluid quality and insemination.
  Cu piglet Stimulating the secretion of somatotropic hormone, the activation factor of many type of the enzymes, affecting the hematopoietic and metabolism, enhancing the growth and production efficiency.
  Inhibiting the growth of spoilage organism and promoting the growth of beneficial microorganism, improving the intestinal health and function of immune system.
  Growing-finishing Pig Increasing the feed intake, improving growth and performance.
  Participating in the formation of melanin, improving the hair condition.
  Mn Piglet Participating in the development of bone tissue, hematopoietic function, promoting the growth performance.
  Sow Promoting the development of gonad, improving the estrus of sow, increasing conception rate and breed performance 
  Boar Promoting the development of gonad and improving the semen quality
  Growing-finishing Pig Playing an important role in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrate and fat, accelerating the growth, beneficial for the production of the lean meat deposition and reducing thickness of back fat. 
  I Piglet Involving in the formation of thyroid hormones, promoting the substance metabolism and growth.
  Sow Affecting the fertilization and embryonic development, enhancing the reproduction performance
  Se Piglet Improving the anti-oxidant capability, promoting metabolism, affecting the pancreas function, promoting growth, increasing immunoreactions,  antibody level and immune globulin level in the blood, and accordingly enhancing immunity.
  Sow Promoting follicular development and increasing ovulation quantity by correlating with vitamin E.
  Maintaining the standard physiological function, reducing fetal abortion and the number of the dead fetus and improving reproduction performance.  
  Boar An essential element for sperm generation, and improving the quality of sperm.
  Growing-finishing Pig Improving the growth performance and carcass quality.
  Co Piglet The active component of vitamin B12, strengthening the hematopoietic function of body, improving nutrition metabolism, promoting growth and development.
  Cr Sow Being an important anti-stress factor, improving the capability of heat stress and delivery stress.
  Improving ovulation and reproduction performance.
  Growing-finishing Pig Participation in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein, promoting the synthesis of protein, enhancing the growth performance,
  anti-stress resulting from the environment, improving the carcass quality and beneficial for lean meat growth.

Table 1-2Nutrition effect of different trace elements on poultry

  Trace element Production phase            Physiological function
  Fe Poultry The essential element of feather pigmentation
  Zn Broiler Increasing the protein level in serous, reducing the level of serum glucose, cholestenone and MDA under the circumstance of the heat stress in order to avoid 
  losing the body weight. 
  Layer Accessory factor of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor which affects the formation of egg shell (rubber egg) relating to the formation of ground substance of eggshell (mucopolysaccharide), affecting the color of eggshell.
  Breeding bird Involving in the formation of epithelial cell on the seminiferous tubule and the development of matrix of hen.
  Increasing the laying , fertility and hatching rate, improving the amount of sperms, enhancing the vigorous, and reducing the low birth rate.
  Cu Broiler Involving in the development of feather and pigmentation.
  Layer A composition of the lysine oxidase (promoting the collagen generation in eggshell membrane). 
  Involving in the formation of hemoglobin, relating to color, the integrity and homogeneity of eggshell.
  Mn Layer Involving in the formation of catalyzer and alkaline phosphatase relative to the formation of mucooplysaccharide and glycoproteins (relating to the cracking strength of eggshell)
  Breeding bird Relating to the embryonic development
  I Layer Deposited in yolk and improving the taste of egg
  Breeding bird Maintaining the ovarian function and pituitary LH
  Promoting the development of embryonic
  Se Layer Deposited in egg and improving the nutritive value
  Breeding birds Maintaining the reproductive performance, affecting the fertility and hatching rate
  Cr Broiler Promoting growth, improving the carcass quality
  Layer Directly or indirectly promoting the composition of protein and improving the quality of protein, reducing the cholesterol level and increasing haugh unit
  Breeding bird Activating IGFS—promoting the gonad activity and animal reproduction performance 
There are a variety of the interactions existed among the trace elements. The absorption of one element would be affected while the another one is too much or little in the feed. Therefore, the optimal proportion among the trace elements would be of the major importance for improving the element utilization, namely "synergistic effect".
2.  The nutrition function of different trace element formulations
Trace elements are of special function and involve in life. Most studies showed that organic trace element could be more satisfying the functional nutrition demand of animal. Based on the requirement for trace elements, suitable ligands, combination efficiency of trace elements and ligands, we have supplied different products or plans to animals at different stages (Table 2-1,2-2).
Table 2-1 Applications of different trace element formulations at different stages of pigs
Trace element
            Functional nutrition
Improving intestinal microecology and growth performance, and hematopoiesis.
Improving hematopoiesis, color, metabolism and growth performance.
Promoting the growth of intestinal villi and microecology balance, repairing intestinal injury, increasingimmunity and fur color. 
Zn-Thr +Zn-HMB
Improving skeletal development and growth.
Mn-Thr +Mn-HMB
Improving the immunity of piglets.
Improving the anti-stress capacity. 
Growing-finishing pigs 
Improving hematopoiesis function, metabolism and growth performance.
Improving the immunity of pigs, reducing the incidence rate of white muscle and drip loss.
Improving the anti-stress capacity and carcass quality
Improving hematopoiesis, the iron storage of newborn piglets, reducing the incidence rate of piglets anaemia.
Improving the anti-stress capacity and the implantation of fertilized ovum, reducing the hoof disease rate.
Improving the skeletal development of fetus and oestrus of sows.
Improving the antioxidant capacity, reducing the embryo and feyus mortality rate.
Improving the antioxidant capacity and birth rate.
Increasing libido, improving semen quality, and reducing the hoof disease rate. 
Improving the anti-stress capacity and semen quality of boar.
Improving the immunity and sperm activity

Table 2-1 Applications of different trace element formulations at different stages of pigs

  Stage Trace element              Functional nutrition




  Broiler Zn Improving the immunity, reducing featherloss, dermatorrhagia, andthe rate of keratinization and inflammation of feet. Zn-HMB
  Mn Improving skeletal development and toughness. Mn-HMB
  Se Improving the immunity, reducing mortality rate at the late stage. Se-yeast
  Layer Fe Improving the color of eggshell and yolk. Fe-Gly
  Zn Improving the smoothness and hardness of eggshell. Zn-Gly
  Mn Improving the hardness of eggshell, reducing broken egg rate. Mn-Gly
  Se Improving the immunity, reducing the mortality rate. Se-yeast
  Breeder Fe Improving the immunity, iron storage, and healthy chicken rate. Fe-HMB
  Zn Reducing featherloss and feet inflammation, improving the fertilization rate and hatching rate. Zn-HMB
  Mn Reducing percent shell thickness of breeding egg, improving bone health. Mn-HMB
  Se Improving the immunity of breeders, accelerating the repairment of ovary and oviduct, reducing elimination rate. Se-yeast
3.  Common trace element related diseases

Most of the trace elements participate in the activation of enzymes, vitamins and hormones, and are of the major importance in the metabolism of nutrients, improvement of production, reproduction and product quality. Therefore, improper use of the elements would lead to metabolic disorder, reduction of production , malnutrition, toxicos and other relative diseases. See Table 3-1, 3-2.

Table 3-1 Pig diseases and relative trace elements 



Relative trace elements

  Piglets anemia The piglets look pale, depression, and no appetite. Moreover, coarse hair and edema was saw in the head and trunk.  Fe, Cu Hart et al.,1930;
  Venn et al.,1947
  Carnes et al.,1961;
  Hill et al.,1983
  Hyperkeratosis The piglets skin was edema, dry, and easy to fall off. Zn Kernkamp and Ferrin,1953
  Tucker and Salmon,1955
  Hoof Disease The hoof of boar and growing-finishing pigs split, blood, even decay.   Zn Kun Wu, Yaolong Yue, 2011
  Dystocia The laboring is too long and more than 3 hours. Zn Kalinowski and Chavez,1984
  Fecundity weakening in boar Spermatogenic epithelium was impaired; The density, vitality and quality of sperm declined.  Zn Miller et al.,1968;
  Liptrap et al.,1970;
  Cigankova et al.,2008
  Estrusdisordersyndrome in sows The sows showed the mammary gland mal development, lower milk yield and irregular estrus. Mn, I Plumlee et al.,1956;
  Hart and Steenbock,1918;
  Devilat and Skoknic,1971
  Weakling piglets syndrome The piglets look pale, short, and inactive, even can't stand. Fe, Zn, Mn Pond and Jones,1964;
  Hoekstra et al.,1967
  Hill et al.,1983
  Iodine deficiency  syndrome Goiter, slow growth and depression I Beesonb et al.,1947;
  Braude and Cotchin,1949;
  Sihombing et al.,1974
  Sudden death Short disease proceeding and sudden death. Se Ewan et al.,1969;
  Groce et al.,1971,1973
  Selenium deficiency syndrome The color of pork is pale, and drop lose increase. Mulberry heart and massive hepatic necrosis were showed.   Se Orstadius et al.,1959;
  Trapp et al.,1970;
  Ruth and Van Vleet,1974;
  Fontaine et al.,1977;
  Sheffy and Schultz,1979

Table 3-2 Poultry diseases and relative trace elements



Relative trace elements


  White muscle disease Waxy degeneration and white streak were seen in rhabdomyolysis; blue-green fluid was accumulated in the chest and abdominal; Yellow subcutaneous fat, hydropericardium, and pancreatic degenerative atrophy.  Se Schwarz K, et al. 1957
  Poultry feather-loss disorder Xerodermia, cornification and shaggy feather were saw in broilers; Chickenwas vulnerable and matte feather. ZnCuMnSe B. Saenmahayak, et al. 2012
  J. Zhao, et al. 2010
  Qianguang Wang, et al. 2005
  Xingkui Si, et al. 2006
  Hoof Disease Toes was vulnerable and scabby; pleural effusion; Hair follicles presented the bleeding points.  ZnCuMn J. Zhao, et al. 2010
  Proventriculitis Poultry was growing slowly, thin, lower uniformity. gizzard erosion; swell and hemorrhage in glandular stomach.. Cu Hui Wang, et al. 2016
  Dongyun Cheng, et al. 2016
  Poor shell quality Soft-shell eggs, white-shell eggs, dirty eggs, flaw eggs. The glossiness and color of eggs are poor.   ZnMnFeCr Lim, H. S, et al. 2003
  S. Swiatkiewicz, et al. 2008
  Ruoxin Yin, et al. 2009
  Skeletal dysplasia syndrome Chicken is vulnerable to slipped tendon, which are characteristic oftenlargehocks, distortion in long bone, in lesion in webbed feet, swelled joints, walking difficultly. MnZn Erying Hao, et al. 2014
  Xugang Luo, et al.1992
  Allotriophagia Feathercone red fir eating, vent pecking, eating eggs. ZnCr Erying Hao, et al. 2014
  Biqian Zhao, et al. 2009
  Paralysis during laying period depression, no appetite, weak at the knees, yellow-white or yellow green loose stool. Moreover, this disease happened highly during late laying period. MnZn Ruisheng Liu, et al. 2010
  Junwu Xiao, et al. 2013

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Article made possible through the contribution of Xingjia Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd.

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