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Livestock Production
Monday, May 15, 2006 8:54:59 PM
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Inflammation control
 
Bharat Tandon

 

 

Inflammation can be divided into several phases.

 

The acute vascular response follows within seconds of the disease injury. This results from vasodilation and increased capillary permeability which leads to increased blood flow ( erythema) and the entry of fluid into the tissues. The reaction lasts for several minutes.

 

If there has been sufficient damage or if infection has occurred the acute cellular response takes place over the next few hours. The hallmark of this phase is the appearance of granulocytes, particularly neutrophils in the tissues. These cells cross into the surrounding tissue by passing through inter endothelial pores of erythrocyte if the vessel is damaged, fibrinogen and fibronectin are deposited at the site of the injury. Platelets aggregate and become activated and the red cells stack together to prevent bleeding and aid in clot formation. The dead and dying cells contribute to pus formation.

 

If the damage is sufficiently severe, a chronic cellular response may follow over the next few days. Characteristics of this phase is the appearance of a mononuclear cell infiltrate composed of macrophages and lymphocytes. The macrophages are involved in microbial killing, in clearing up cellular and tissue debris and they also seem to be important in remodeling tissues.

 

Over the next few weeks, resolution may occur. Blood clots are formed by fibrinolysis and if it is not possible to return the tissue to its original form, scarring results. Generally, by this time, any infection would have been overcome. However, it has not been possible to destroy the infection agents or remove the products that have accumulated at the site completely, they are walled off from the surrounding tissue and a granuloma is formed.

 

Inflammation and pain management concepts have evolved for centuries.

 

Traditionally different varieties are used in different parts of the world, but they can be divided into two categories: Steriods, and non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs

 

Among two naturally occurring steroid hormones in the body, glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents. Apart from the main g lucocorticoid hormone ¡��Ccortisol, a number of synthetic steroids are also available.

 

Steriods suppress all aspects of acute and chronic inflammation. One mechanism steroids use to suppress inflammation is by membrane stabilizing action of cells, neutrophils, macrophases and cell organelles ¡��C lysosomes and mitochondria, which reduces synthesis as well as release toxic free radicals.

 

Steriods have a major limitation when used as a regular inflammatory drug. Besides, metabolic side effects, suppression of immune system also makes the animal more vulnerable to infection and stress.

 

Traditionally different varieties are used in different parts of the world, but they can be divided into two categories: Steriods, and non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs

 

 Specific COX-2 inhibitors offer better option for pain inflammation management with fewer side effects like gastric ulceration and prolonged bleeding damage.

 

 

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