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Functional Additives
Thursday, April 28, 2016 1:39:58 PM
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Effects of NSP enzyme on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility using Simulative Digestion System of ducks fed wheat-miscellaneous meal diets

 

L.L. Wang; W.G. Duan; R. Jin; S.L. Zhang

 

 

Abstract:
 
This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of NSP enzyme on duck growth performance as well as duck diet DM and CP digestibility using Simulative Digestion System. 720 one-day old cherry valley ducks were random assigned into 4 treatment with 6 replicates of 30 each by one factor randomized block design, which were fed diet as followed: PC1 group fed normal duck basal diet, NC group fed diet with lower energy and CP than those in PC1(reduced 30kcal/kg, 0.25% respectively), PC2 group fed diet with higher energy and CP than those in PC1 group (increased 30kcal/kg, 0.25% respectively), NSP enzyme group fed NC diet with 0.2g/kg NSP enzyme(Kingzyme manufactured by Weifang KDN Biotech Co., Ltd.), the whole feeding period was 37 days. And those four 17-25 days’ duck diets were chosen to test DM and CP digestibility using Simulative Digestion System by one factor complete randomized design. The result showed that:(1) In the 0-37 feeding periods, the ADG in ducks of NSP group was significantly increased 3.45% (P<0.05) compared with PC1group, but no significant difference with PC2 group; also the EPEF in NSP group was also improved during 0-37days, which were significantly enhanced 6.71% (P<0.05) and 6.38% (P<0.05) compared ton NC and PC1 group respectively. (2) Result from Simulative Digestion system showed that the digestibility of DM and CP in NSP enzyme in 17-25 days duck diets were significantly higher than those in NC (P<0.05) and PC1 (P<0.05), higher than PC2 group but no difference. It could be concluded that NSP enzyme supplemented in duck diet with lower energy and CP can improve duck growth performance, also its matrix value was 3000 kcal/kg, 25% CP in duck feed were predicted.

 

Wheat, barley and sorghum with high nutritional value are used in poultry diet commonly. Wheat-based diets usually contain significant levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylan, which increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and decrease the growth performance when fed to poultry (Choct and Annison, 1992a; Friesen et al., 1992). Monogastric animals are physiologically unable to hydrolyze NSP in their small intestine. Hence, supplementation of NSP enzymes to poultry diets can improve digestibility, whilst economizing the formula using cheaper NSP rich ingredients. Exogenous enzymes, such as xylanase and glucanase, supplemented in wheat- barley based diet have direct and positive effects on animals. The addition of commercial enzymes to the diets containing high levels of wheat can improve AME, lipid, protein, and other nutrient digestibility(Friesen et al.,1992).

 

At recommended dosage, presently used NSP enzyme concepts improved the FCR by 3% in broilers on various non-reformulated diets(AVEVE Biochem NV unpublished data, Merksem, Belgium). Recently, in ducks, a digestible amino acid reformulation of 2 to 2.5% in a corn-based diet could be achieved using NSP enzymes and phytase in a blend at recommended dosage.

 

At present, NSP enzymes used in broiler diet is common. But NSP enzymes is rarely used in duck diets. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NSP enzyme on duck growth performance fed wheat-barley basal diet and difference on diet DM and CP digestibility using Simulative Digestion System.

 

Materials and Methods

 

Experimental birds and Management

 

720 one-day old cherry valley ducks were obtained from New Hope Group. Ducks were random assigned into 4 treatment with 6 replicates of 30 each by one factor randomized block design.

 

The trial was conducted for 37 days, split in 3 feeding phases: a starter diet(1-16d), a grower diet(17-25d) and a finisher diet(26-37d). Ducks had ad libitum access to the feed and the water. The animal care and experimental procedures used in this study were approved by NEW HOPE LIUHE R&D CENTER.

 

Experimental Diets

 

The dietary levels were formulated to meet National Research Council (NRC, 1994) recommendations for ducks, their composition and nutrient values are presented in Table 1. The utility based diet’s composition and nutrient values are presented in Table 2.

 

Table 1 Composition (%) and nutritive value of duck diets
  Composition (%)  1-16 day  17-25day  26-37day
  Maize  13.16 6.63 0.00
  Wheat  10.20 10.20 10.20
  Barley 15.31 15.31 15.31
  Sorghum  15.31 25.46 35.31
  Flour  10.20 10.20 10.20
  Poultry oil  1.94 2.86 3.27
  Soybean meal 46%  1 9.78 15.10 7.65
  DDGS  8.16 9.18 12.24
  Corn gluten meal 1.02 1.02 1.02
  Limestone  1.33 1.43 1.22
  DCP  1.84 1.02 0.82
  NaCl  0.36 0.36 0.36
  Lysine, 70%  0.71 0.63 0.84
  Methionine, 98%  0.29 0.22 0.24
  Threonine, 98%  0.17 0.14 0.18
  Vitamin-mineral premix 1) 0.14 0.14 0.34
  Choline chloride, 60%  0.08 0.07 0.07
  Total  100 100 100
  Calculated nutritional value(%)      
  AMEn(duck), kcal/kg  2850 2914 3020
  Dry matter  87.84 87.90 88.09
  Crude Protein  19.90 18.36 18.73
  Crude ash  8.04 7.17 6.52
  Crude fiber  3.40 3.31 3.22
  Calcium  0.94 0.80 0.67
  Available phosphorus  0.45 0.32 0.30
 

*Vitamin-mineral premix provided the following nutrients per kilogram of diet: VA, 13,000 IU; VD 3 , 3,000 IU; VE, 28 ppm; VK 3 , 2.0 mg; VB 1 , 2.2 mg; VB 2 , 5 mg; niacin, 40 mg; pantothenic acid, 25 mg; pyridoxine, 4 mg; folic acid, 1.5 mg; VB 12 , 0.02 mg; Biotin, 0.27 ppm; Fe, 75 ppm; Cu, 10.0 ppm; Mn, 110 mg; Zn, 65 mg; Se, 0.31 mg.

 

Table 2 Composition (%) and nutritive value of utility based diet
 

Composition (%)

Calculated nutritional value(%)

 

Maize 

35.7

AMEn(duck), kcal/kg 

3000

 

Poultry oil 

9.70

Dry matter 

88.59

 

Soybean meal 46% 

47.90

Crude Protein 

25

 

Limestone 

6.70

Crude ash 

9.99

 

Total

100

Crude fiber

3.64

 

 

 

Crude fat 

11.82

 

 

 

Calcium 

2.52

 

 

 

Available phosphorus 

0.09

 

 

 

DigLys-p 

0.95

 

 

 

DigThr-p 

0.85

 

 

 

DigMet-p 

0.35

 

 

 

DigMet+Cys-p 

0.963

 

 

 

DigTrp-p 

0.266

 

The PC1 group fed normal duck basal diet, which contained an adequate nutrient composition for duck according to typical duck recommendations (98%basal diet+1% bentonite+1% utility based diet). The negative control diet (NC) contained 30kcal/kg, 0.25% respectively less energy and CP than the PC1 group (98%basal diet+2% bentonite). The PC2 group contained 30kcal/kg, 0.25% respectively more energy and CP than the PC1 group (98%basal diet+2% utility based diet). NSP enzyme group fed NC diet with 0.2g/kg NSP enzyme. Duck mash diets were manufactured at Pingdu Liuhe.

 

Growth Performance

 

Body weight, feed intake and survival rate in different stages were recorded for the calculation of the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversation ratio and EPEF. Feed was withdrawn for 12 h, with water being provided ad libitum, before the ducks were weighed.

 

Simulative Digestion System of NSP
 

Those four 17-25 days’ duck diets were chosen to test DM and CP digestibility using Simulative Digestion System by one factor complete randomized design.The method had three stages. In the simulated gastric digestion stage: 2g (accurate to 0.0002g) of complete diets and 20 mL stimulated gastric fluid which was made of 1,550 U/mL pepsin (Sigma 10070; Sigma-Aldrich Co., St.Louis, Mo) to match the in vivo activity of pepsin in gastric fluid of roosters described by Sturkie(1976) was added into dialysis tubing within the digestion chamber. Test the dry matter and protein content of complete diets. For gastric digestion, pumping the gastric buffer solution(120 mL/min) into digestion chambers for 4 h at 42 ℃.

 

In the simulated intestinal digestion stages: prepare containing amylase (activity 401.46 U / mL), trypsin(activity 49.28 U / mL), chymotrypsin (activity 11.31 U / mL) chicken simulated intestinal fluid. At the end of gastric digestion, add 2 mL simulated intestinal fluid into digestion chamber for 15 h at 42 ℃.

 

After simulated digestion, undigested residues were transferred to a preweighed vessel and dried overnight at 65°C, after which they were dried at 105°C for 5 h to constant weight.

 

Chemical Analysis

 

Samples of diets were ground to pass through a 0.3-mm mesh screen in a laboratory mill before analysis. The DM content(method 934.01;AOAC,1990) of the diets and residues were determined after drying in an oven(105℃) for 5h. Diets was analysed for CP(Kjeldahl N; method 954.01;AOAC,1990).

 

Statistical Analysis

 

Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were separated by LSD-test using SPSS 18.0. The   results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation form.

 

RESULTS

 

Growth Performance

 

Ducks maintained a general good health status throughout the study. The results for growth performance are given in Table 3. There was no significant difference of all groups on ADFI at 0-16d, 17-25d, 26-37d and 0-37d stages, wherein the ADFI of NSP enzyme group (0-37d) was the highest. There was no significant difference of all groups on ADG at 0-16d, 17-25d and 0-37d stages. Compared with NC group, the ADG in NSP enzyme group at 26-37d stage was significantly increased 4.17% (P <0.05). Compared with PC1group, the ADG in NSP enzyme group was significantly increased 3.45% (P <0.05). Compared with NC group, NSP enzyme group showed better effects on reducing FCR on ducks. The FCR level in NSP enzyme group was 6.7% lower than PC1 group, but no difference between NC and PC2 groups. There was no significant difference of all groups on EPEF at 0-16d and 17-25d stages. The EPEF level of NSP enzyme group in 26-37d was 19.91% higher than PC1 group, but no difference between NC and PC2 groups.

 

Table 3 Growth performance of the ducks fed with the different diets (0-37d)
        Treatment
Items           
NC PC1  PC2  NC + NSP enzyme
ADFI (g/d)        
0-16d  78.30±0.34  78.32±0.26  78.45±0.58  78.46±0.57
17-25d  166.51±0.35  166.22±1.00  166.28±0.68  167.06±0.60
26-37d  252.22±18.39  252.35±17.44  253.88±13.89  265.99±8.52
0-37d  156.36±5.76  157.27±6.26  156.94±4.77  161.24±2.45
ADG(g/d)        
0-16d  56.23±1.56  57.64±1.43  57.22±1.80  56.84±0.91
17-25d  97.6±2.35  103.1±2.91  101.0±8.76  100.3±7.23
26-37d  118.2±11.06  114.1±8.92  121.3±7.86  126.4±4.90
0-37d  86.46±2.73 b 87.07±2.67 b 88.60±1.73 ab 90.03±1.76 a
FCR        
0-16d  1.39±0.04  1.36±0.03  1.37±0.05  1.38±0.03
17-25d  1.72±0.04  1.62±0.05  1.68±0.15  1.69±0.10
26-37d  2.14±0.08 ab 2.25±0.10 a 2.09±0.13 b 2.10±0.05 b
0-37d  1.81±0.04  1.79±0.04  1.77±0.03  1.79±0.06
EPEF        
0-16d  387.81±38.01  406.04±18.45  402.23±47.48  402.77±12.63
17-25d  565.27±24.73 631.74±37.74  602.48±91.37 588.83±71.33
26-37d  554.90±65.12 ab 501.33±44.80 b 582.78±67.03 a 601.12±31.54 a
0-37d  456.34±32.98 b 457.73±20.34 b 477.21±3.50 ab 486.90±8.88 a
 

Note: in the same row, values with different small letter superscripts mean significantly difference (P<0.05), while with the same or no letter superscripts mean no significantly difference (P>0.05).

 

DM and CP Digestibility

 

The results for DM and CP digestibility using Simulative Digestion system are given in Table 4. Results showed that the DM digestibility of PC2 group was significantly higher than other groups (P <0.05). There is no significant difference of NSP enzyme group, PC1 group and NC group. Protein digestibility results showed that PC2 group was significantly higher than NSP enzyme group and PC1 group (P <0.05), was significantly higher than NC group (P <0.01). The digestibility of NSP enzyme group and PC1 group was lower than PC2 group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups.

 

Table 4 DM and CP digestibility using Simulative Digestion system (17-25d)

        Treatment
Items           

Dry matter digestibility

Crude protein digestibility

NC 

69.67±0.17 b

43.94±0.14 c

PC1 

69.96±0.34 b

45.28±0.61 b

PC2 

70.62 ±0.32 a

47.68±0.29 a

NC+NSP enzyme 

70.28±0.38 b

44.28±0.48 b

 

 

DISCUSSION

 

The effect of NSP enzyme on broiler growth performance

 

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) is rich in the cereals feed materials, such as barley and wheat. It is soluble in water and forms glue, which will block the digestion of starch and protein in digestive tract and increase the viscosity of digesta. Thus, it will reduce the spread speed of digestive enzyme in gut and increase the digest time of feed. And the NSP will not be digested by endogenous enzymes secreted by monogastric animals. Thus, the addition of exogenous compound enzymes is necessary to improve the digestibility of these cereal materials. The study by ZhangQin(2007) found that adding complex enzymes into low energy diet of broiler, the FCR decreased 9.38% for the whole stages, and the daily gain improved 5.79%. The study indicated that adding NSP enzymes in low energy and low protein duck diet (energy and protein reduced by 60kcal/kg and 0.5%) would significantly improve the ADG and reduce FCR in the whole stages, which was consistent with the research above. But in this trial, the AFI and FCR were not significantly decreased and ADG was not significantly improved. The result was not consistent with the research by Ren Meiqi(2011), which indicated that adding NSP enzymes in wheat basal diet would significantly improve the growth performance of meat duck by significantly decrease the feed intake at later stage so as to reduce FCR to improve the feed utilization. Different formulations and activities of NSP enzymes and basal diets may cause the different conclusions. The trial diet is composed with large percentage of wheat and barley. Comparing to corn, wheat and barley contain more NSP, which are mainly araboxylan, xylan and glucan(Englyst,1989). Xylanase could effectively break the plant cell wall and release protein and starch to improve the utilization of nutrition; xylanase, mannanase and β-glucanase will not only decompose the NSP such as xylan,mannan and b-glucan but also decrease the viscosity of digesta, and help to break the plant cell wall to improve the nutrition digestion and absorption in duck small intestine to improve the growth performance.(Zeng Qinglan and Xu

Jiawang,2012; Perez,2000).

 

The effect of NSP enzymes on the digestibility of dry matter and protein in vitro Simulative digestion

 

The vitro enzyme test method is designed according to animal physiological parameter. The digestive and absorption processes are simulated the metabolism in animal, so it is called Simulative digestion method. With this method, the obtained digestibility and digest energy of dry matter are with high accuracy and reproducibility (ZhaoJiangtao,2003; XieMulin,2011). RenLiqin(2012) found that the correlation coefficient of SDAA, the measured values by Simulative method about 17 amino acid in 16 feed materials and TDAA, the measured values of metabolism method is 0.930-0.996, which is highly significant correlation. As a result, the vitro Simulative digestion trial and metabolism trial are with good correlation and could be used to test the digestibility of feed materials in animal.

 

YiZongrong(2013) found that adding NSP enzymes, the ileum apparent digestibility of crude protein in meat duck was significantly improved comparing to the control group. It showed that NSP enzymes would improve the feeding effect of miscellaneous meals. ZhangXu(2013) found that adding NSP enzymes can make 14 kinds of cereal and its byproducts most effective release of additional nutrients, effectively improve the nutritional value of DM (ENIV) range 0.09-46.92g/kg. The study also shows that in NSP enzyme group the dry matter and protein digestibility significantly improved, significantly lower than the control group, but the effect with the control group (-) fairly, which consistent with the duck breeding test results. Adding enzymes in duck feed can improve the digestibility of dry matter and protein, which leading to weight gain duck body significantly improved, thereby improving the performance of ducks.

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

NSP enzyme supplemented in duck diet with lower energy and CP can improve duck growth performance, also its matrix value was 3000 kcal/kg、25% CP in duck feed were predicted.

 

 

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Article made possible through the contribution of L.L. Wang; W.G. Duan; R. Jin; S.L. Zhang

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