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Functional Additives
Wednesday, April 20, 2016 3:20:15 PM
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Effect of Mycofix® Focus on performance of weaning piglets fed diets contaminated with fumonisins
 
 
Shu GUAN, BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd; Sabine MASCHING, Christina SCHWAB, Karin NAEHRER, BIOMIN Holding GmbH
      
 
Introduction
 
Fumonisins (FUM) are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. According to the BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survery Program conducted from 2004 to 2013, more than 55 % of all samples tested in most regions in the world were contaminated with FUM. FUM are commonly found in corn cereals and corn by-products, and they create a significant threat to swine production (Marasas, 2001; Rodrigues and Naehrer, 2012). Pigs are one of the species more sensitive to FUM, and Porcine Pulmonary Edema (PPE) is a swine-specific disease caused by FUM. Besides that, FUM can also affect liver function, intestinal tract, blood biochemistry, carcass quality and more importantly the immune system (Grenier et al., 2011; Oswald et al., 2003).
 
Strategies have been developed to avoid or reduce harmful effects of FUM during the past decade. However, control strategies such as physical binding used in feed commodities have their deficiencies, such as pH dependency and non-specificity. It is expected that progress in the control of FUM contamination will depend on the introduction of technologies for specific, efficient and environmentally-sound detoxification. The utilization of biological detoxification agents, such as enzymes to transform FUM can be a choice of such technology.
 
After 9 years of scientific investigation, BIOMIN developed FUMzyme®, an enzyme that transforms FUM to non-toxic hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1). FUMzyme® transformation is a unique strategy to control FUM and it is highly efficient, specific and irreversible. In vitro trials have proven that low doses of FUMzyme® (approximately 1.7-17 U/L) are capable of comple­tely transforming FUM at 72.2 ppm (BIOMIN Fumonisins Compendium, 2013). Scientific research described that HFB1 does not cause intestinal or hepatic toxicity in the pig model and does not induce major changes in the sphingolipid metabolism (Voss et al., 2009). A number of in vivo pig trials in Austria, Brazil and France have demonstrated the beneficial effects of FUMzyme® in counteracting FUM. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of Mycofix® Focus (MFO), which includes FUMzyme® and a specific bentonite, to reduce the adverse effects of FUM on weaning piglets in Asia.
 
Trial design
 

48 weaning piglets with an average starting weight of 7.44 kg were allocated to 4 experimental groups of 12 animals (6 male, 6 female piglets) each. All animals were ear tagged and individually weighed. In the course of the whole trial period all animals had free access to feed and water. Trial duration was 42 days. The trial was performed at Seoul National University, Korea. Experimental design is shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1 – Trial design

Experimental group

Number of animals

FUM (ppm)

Mycofix®Focus (%)

Control

12

-

-

FUM

12

5

-

FUM + Mycofix®Focus

12

5

0.20

Mycofix®Focus

12

-

0.20

 

The following parameters were evaluated: body weight (kg/animal), daily weight gain (g/animal), daily feed intake (g/animal), Feed conversion rate (FCR), biomarker Sphinganine/Sphingosine ratio (Sa/So ratio). All data derived from the trial was subjected to statistical evaluation by means of ANOVA followed by Tukey-Test (IBM SPSS Statistics 19).
 
Results
 
In the course of the trial FUM had a clear, negative impact on performance of the animals. Body weight and daily weight gain were reduced compared to the control (Figure 1). Animals in the FUM-group consumed less feed compared to all other groups (Figure 1). The low feed conversion rate in the FUM-group (Figure 1) is a result of poor growth and decreased feed intake displaying the negative impact of FUM in the diets.
 
 
By the addition of Mycofix® Focus the negative influence of FUM could be alleviated and all performance parameters could be improved. FUM disrupt sphingolipid metabolism and block the synthesis of complex sphingolipids from sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So). As a consequence, Sa and So accumulate in tissues. Accumulation of Sa and So can be used as a biomarker to indicate FUM contamination. FUM interrupt sphingolipid metabolism, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, cell damage and apoptosis. Sa/So ratio, measured at day 42, was increased in the FUM-group (P<0.05). By the addition of Mycofix® Focus levels of Sa/So could be reduced to control levels again (Figure 2).
  


Figure 1. Final body weight (day 42; kg/animal), Average daily weight gain (day 1 – 42; g/animal), Average daily feed intake (day 1 – 42; g/animal), Feed conversion rate (FCR; kg/kg)

 


Figure 2. Sa/So ratio (day 42) different superscripts indicate statistically significant differences (P<0.05)

 

Conclusion


According to the 10-year mycotoxin survey program conducted by BIOMIN, FUM have been found to be highly prevalent across the world, particularly in Asia and South America regions. FUM are mostly identified in corn and corn by-products such as DDGS, CGM, and cause both clinical and immunosuppression problems in pig farms. None of the mycotoxin binders are capable of adsorbing FUM very well, mainly due to pH--dependency and non-specificity. Biotransformation of FUM by Mycofix® Focus is the only feasible strategy in controlling FUM, and it is unique, highly efficient, specific and irreversible.
    
            

For more of the article, please click here.

             

Article made possible through the contribution of Shu GUAN, BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd; Sabine MASCHING, Christina SCHWAB, Karin NAEHRER, BIOMIN Holding GmbH

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