Potential role of N-carbamoyl glutamate in biosynthesis of arginine and its significance in production of ruminant animals
Arginine (ARG) exerts many beneficial effects on animal body and enhanced angiogenesis, lactogenesis, which finally leads to the improvement in nitrogen (N) metabolism, reproduction, lactation, immunity and growth. Unfortunately, unprotected ARG will be degraded in the rumen and its price is high, thus feeding rumen-protected ARG seems to be uneconomical. Alternatively, N-carbamoyl glutamate (NCG) is structural analogue of N-acetyl glutamate, cofactor of cabamoyl phosphate synthetase1, is lower in rumen degradation compared to ARG. Additionally, rumen epithelial and duodenal cells have potentially utilized the NCG for ureagenesis. Supplementation of NCG to high yielding dairy cows increased plasma concentration of ARG and nitric oxide, decreased the plasma ammonia N and improved lactation performance and N utilization. Supplementation of NCG enhanced pregnancy rates in rats, improved litter size and fetal survivalrate, thereby improved the reproductive performance of sows. Oral NCG supplementation increasesplasma ARG and somatotropin levels, and increased growth rate and muscle protein synthesis in nursing piglets. The NCG is potential a relatively cheaper source of feed additive to offer vital compensation over oral administration of ARG, resulting in improved ruminant animal health and production. In this article, we reviewed the mechanism of ARG biosynthesis by NCG and their significance in growth, reproduction, milk production and N utilization in ruminant animals.
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Article made possible through the contribution of Bahram Chacher et. Al. and Biomed Central.